Adverbs are words which tell us more about an action; they tell us where the action takes place, how it takes place and when it takes place, and are accordingly called adverbs of place, manner and time. Almost all Turkish adjectives can be used as adverbs.
|Kadm güzel konuştu.||The woman spoke well.|
|Çocuklar çok yavaş yürüdü.||The children walked very slowly.|
|Yemeği çabuk yediniz.||You ate (the meal) quickly.|
|Film yeni başladı.||The film has just started.|
|İstanbul’dan yeni geldik.||We have recently come (i.e. returned) from Istanbul.|
The demonstrative pronouns bu, şu, o can give us adverbs of place when they take certain suffixes. The suffix -RE- added to these pronouns forms the bases bura- ‘this place’, şura- ‘that place’, ora- ‘that place’. These bases must take a case suffix or a possessive suffix before they can be used as individual words. With the third person possessive suffix we obtain the following nouns:
|Burası çok rahat.||This place is very comfortable|
|Şurası temiz.||That place is clean|
|Orası soğuk.||That place is cold.|
With other persons of the possessive suffix the reference is usually to a part of one’s body:
|Oran nasıl?||How is that part (place) of yours? (How/What do you feel in that part of your body?)|
|Buram iyi.||This part of me is OK.|
The most frequent use of the bases bura-, şura-, ora- as adverbs is with the suffixes -DE (locative), -(Y)E (dative) and -DEN (ablative):
|burada||here, in here|
|şurada||there, in there|
|orada||there, in there|
|Arkadaşlarımız burada kalıyor||Our friends are staying here.|
|Otobüs şurada duruyor.||The bus stops there.|
|Oraya gitmedik, şuraya gittik.||We did not go there, we went there/ here.|
|Mektup oradan geldi.||The letter came from there.|
In colloquial speech, the vowel before the suffixes in the above bases is regularly dropped; this can happen in an informal style of writing as well, giving us the forms burda, şurda, orda, nerde. However, the correct spelling does keep the vowel, apd this is the form you should use in writing.
As we saw above the interrogative ne can also take the suffix -RE- forming nere-; this can then take the possessive suffix and all the case suffixes:
|nerede||where (at where)|
The above bases can also take the suffixes -(Y) (definite object) and -(N)İN (genitive).
|nereyi||where (which place)|
|Burayı bilmiyorum.||I do not know this place.|
|İzmir’de nereyi gördün?||Which place did you see in Izmir?|
|buranın||of this place|
|şuranın||of that place|
|oranın||of that place|
|nerenin||of what place|
|Bu ad nerenin?||This name is of what place? (belongs to what place?)|
|Bu anahtar buranın.||This key is of this place (belongs to this place).|
The following words have a directional meaning; that is, they indicate a direction in which the action takes place.In this sense they can be used as adverbs, whereas in other senses they can function as nouns or adjectives.
|beri||this way, here|
|Asansör yukarı çıktı||The lift went up.|
|Kapıyı içeri ittim||I pushed the door inwards.|
They are frequently used with the suffixes -DE, -(Y)E and -DEN; with the -(Y)E suffix, however, the direction indicated does not change and therefore the meaning does not change.
For this reason it is common practice to leave out this ending. Araba geri gitti. Araba geriye gitti – The car went backwords
The words öte ‘further, there’ and karşı ‘across, opposite’ are used adverbially with these same suffixes.
Yeşil ışıkta karşıya geçtim. I went across (crossed to the other side) at the green light. Biraz öteye gitti – He went (moved) a little further.
The direction words listed above are sometimes used in pairs to indicate a two-way motion; the word bir often accompanies each word: Arabalar bir ileri bir geri gitti – The cars went orie step forwards, one step backwards, (i.e. very slowly, continually stopping ari & starting) Genç adam bir aşağı bir yukarı yürüdü – The young man walked up and down (the street).
The combination aşağı yukarı means ‘approximately’, ‘about’ and not ‘up and down’: İstanbul’da aşağı yukarı bir ay kaldım. I stayed in istanbul approximately/about a month. The combination öte beri means ‘this and that’: Çarşıya çıktım, öte beri aldım – I went shopping, (and) bought this and that.