Changes in Consonants

There are two groups of consonants in the Turkish alphabet :
  • A) Voiceless consonants: ç f h k p s ş t
  • B) Voiced consonants: All other consonants

The voiceless consonants ç k p and t may be replaced by their voiced counterparts c ğ b and d.
We can show them by following symbols:

ç /c
k/ ğ
p /b
t /d
Two sorts of consonants change may occur

1) The initial consonant of the suffix may be changed.

When the suffix begins with the variable consonant t/d or ç / c :
a. If the suffix is attached to a voice consonant , the first variable consonant appears as d or c

· cam glass
· cancı glass- seller
· çay tea
· çaycı tea maker – tea seller
· güzel pretty
· güzeldir is pretty
· uzun tall
· uzundur is tall
· kalın thick
· kalındır is thick
b. If the suffix is attached to a voiceless consonant, the initial consonant of the suffix appears as ç or t
· süt milk
· sütçü milkman
· aş cooked food
· aşçı cook
· balık fish
· balıkçı fishman
· büyük big
· büyüktür is big
· küçük small
· küçüktür is small
· genç young
· gençtir is young

2) Final consonant of preceding word may be changed.

When the final letter is a voiceless variable consonant, it remains unchanged unless it is followed by a suffixed vowel.

balık balıkçı balığı
fısh fisherman the fish (objective definite)
koltuk koltukta koltuğu
armchair in the armchair the armchair (objective definite)
ağaç ağaçta ağacı
tree in the tree the tree (objective definite)

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