The Simple Present Tense – Geniş Zaman

The Simple Present Tense has a number of different forms depending on the verb base to which it is added.

Verbs ending in a vowel take -R

oku-rum i read
bekle-rsin you wait
başla-rlar they start
anla-rız we understand
iste-r he wants
topla-rsınız you collect

Olumlu-Affirmative

Verb stem r Personal suffix
oku r um i read
oku r sun you read
oku r he/she reads
oku r uz we read
oku r sunuz you read
oku r lar they read

Olumsuz-Negative

Verb Stem me/ma (z) Personal suffix
oku ma m i don’t read
oku maz sin you don’t read
oku maz he/she doesn’t read
oku ma yız we don’t read
oku maz sınız you don’t read
oku maz lar they don’t read

Soru-Interrogative

oku r mu yum? do ı read?
oku r mu sun? do you read?
oku r mu? does he /she read
oku r mu yuz? do we read?
oku r mu sunuz? do you read?
oku rlar mı? do they read?

Olumsuz Soru-Negative interrogative

oku maz yım? don’t i read?
oku maz mısın? don’t you read?
oku maz mı? doesn’t he/she read?
oku maz yız? don’t we read?
oku maz sınız? don’t you read?
oku mazlar mı? don’t they read?

Examples: Genellikle haftada iki kez tenis oynarım. İ usually play tennis twice a week. Su 100 santigrat derecede kaynar. Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade. Her gün yürürüm. I walk every day. Her akşam kitap okurum. I read book every evening.

2. Verbs ending in a consonant take -İR or -ER.

The rules for this distinction are as follows:

A. Verbs of more than one syllable take the suffix -İR; variants are -ir, -ir, -ür, -ur.

Olumlu-Affirmative
göster-ir-im i show
göster-ir-sin you show
göster-ir he/she shows
göster-ir-iz we show
göster-ir-siniz you show
göster-ir-ler they show
Olumsuz-Negative
göstermem i don’t show
göstermezsin you don’t show
göstermez he /she doesn’t show
göstermeyiz we don’t show
göstermezsiniz you don’t show
göstermezler they don’t show
Soru-Interrogative
gösterir miyim? do i show?
gösterir misin? do you show?
gösterir mi? does he/she show?
gösterir miyiz? do we show?
gösterir misiniz? do you show?
gösterirler mi? do they show?
Olumsuz soru-Negative interrogative
göstermez miyim? don’t i show?
göstermez misin? don’t you show?
göstermez mi? doesn’t he/she show?
göstermez miyim? don’t we show?
göstermez misiniz? don’t you show?
göstermezler mi? don’t they show?
göster-ir-im I show
otur-ur-sunuz You seat
çalış-ır He works
öksür-ür-üz We cough

Her sabah erken kalkarım. İ get up early every morning. Hemşireler hastalara bakarlar. Nurses look after patients. Dünya güneşin çevresinde döner. The world goes round the world.

B. The following one-syllable verbs also take -İR:

alır he takes
bilir he knows
bulur he finds
durur he stops
gelir he comes
görür he sees
kalır he stays
olur he becomes
ölür he dies
sanır he thinks
varır he arrives
verir he gives
vurur he hits

Olumlu-Affirmative
verb stem (a,e,ı,i,ü,u)r Personal suffix
gel ir im i come
gel ir sin you come
gel ir he/she comes
gel ir iz we come
gel ir siniz you come
gel ir ler they come
Olumsuz-Negative
Verb stem me/ ma(z) personal suffix
gel me m i don’t come
gel mez sin you don’t come
gel mez he/she doesn’t come
gel me yiz we don’t come
gel mez siniz you don’t come
gel mez ler they don’t come
Olumlu Soru-Interrogative
mı mi mu mü
gel ir mi yim? do ı come?
gel ir mi sin? do you come?
gel ir mi? does he/she come?
gel ir mi yiz? do we come?
gel ir mi siniz? do you come?
gel irler mi? do they come?
Olumsuz Soru-Negative Interrogative
mez /maz
gel mez mi yim? don’t i come?
gel mez mi sin? don’t you come?
gel mez mi? doesn’t he/she come?
gel mez mi yiz? don’t we come?
gel mez mi siniz? don’t you come?
gel mez ler mi? don’t they come?

Güneş batıda doğmaz The sun doesn’t rise in the west Her akşam televizyon izlemeyiz We don’t watch television every evening Ben sık çay içmem I don’t often drink tea Fare kedi yakalamaz Mice don’t catch cats Her sabah erken kalkar mısın?
Do you get up early every day?
Her akşam kitap okur mu?
Does she read book every evening?
Dünya güneşin çevresinde döner mi?
Does the world go round the sun?
Her gün yürür müsün?
Do you walk every day?
Her sabah erken kalkmaz mısın?
Don’t you get up early every morning?
Dünya güneşin çevresinde dönmez mi?
Doesn’t the world go round the sun?
Her gün yürümez misin?
Don’t you walk every day?
Sık televizyon izlemez misiniz?
Don’t you often watch television?

C. All the other one-syllable verbs take -ER; variants are -er, -ar:

gider he goes
böler he devides
tutar he holds
açar he opens
çalar he rings
koşar he runs

Uses of the Simple Present Tense has several different uses. It is used to express actions done habitually or repeatedly, and also to make statements that are true and valid at all times.
Her sabah altıda kalkarım.
I get up at six every morning.
Uçak İstanbul’a üç saatte gider.
The plane reaches istanbul in three hours.
İngilizler bu yemeği bilmez.
The British do not know this dish.

In this sense of the Simple Present Tense, it is possible to replace it with -(İ)YOR; in fact in colloquial Turkish -(İ)YOR seems to be replacing the Simple Present Tense quite systematically. Her sabah iki bardak çay içiyorum.
I drink two glasses of tea every morning.
Tren Ankara’ya sekiz saatte gidiyor.
The train goes to Ankara in eight hours.

Another use of the Simple Present Tense is to express action done voluntarily, willingly and to indicate a hope to do something. Bu mektubu öğleye kadar bitiririm.
I’ll finish this letter by noon.
Hafta sonunda sinemaya gideriz.
We’ll go to the cinema at the weekend.
Ali sana haber verir.
Ali will let you know.

In this sense, the Simple Present Tense seems to mean the same thing as the future, but there is an important difference: the future is more a statement of fact, indicating that the action mentioned will definitely take place. The Simple Present Tense on the other hand indicates an intention, a willingness. Simple Present Tense: Sana telefon ederim. I’ll ring you. Future: Sana telefon edeceğim. I shall ring you. As it conveys an intention rather than a certainty, the word belki ‘perhaps’ is frequently used with the Simple Present Tense.
Belki erken gelir.
Perhaps he’ll come early.
Belki biraz sonra gelirler.
Perhaps they’ll come a little later.

The Simple Present Tense is often used as a polite request asking for something to be done, or offering something.

The question form is then used: Lütfen başlar mısınız?
Would you start please?
Kapıyı kapar mısınız?
Would you close the door?
Kahve ister misiniz?
Would you like (some) coffee?
Ne içersiniz?
What would you like to drink?

The verbs gitmek and etmek in the Simple Present Tense The last letter “t” in the stems of those verbs in a variable consonant.

giderim i go
gidersin you go
gider he /she goes
gideriz we go
gidersiniz you go
giderler they go
ederim i do
edersin you do
eder he does
ederiz we do
edersiniz you do
ederler they do

2 Comments

  1. MarthaD 4 November, 2011
  2. kapachristy 5 November, 2011

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