kim is used questions where the target of the question is a person. It can combine with all the inflectional suffixes that attach to nouns and usually occurs in the positions occupied by the corresponding noun phrases:
|Resimleri kim değerlendirecek?
|Who will evaluate the paintings?
|Şule’nin babası kim?
|Who is Şule’s father?
|Nuri kim-i görmüş ?
|Whom did Nurı see?
kim can have plural marking when the speaker knows or assumes that more than one person or type of person is involved:
|En çok kim-Ier-in çocuk-lar-i okulda başarılı oluyormuş?
||Whose children (the children of what type of people) are the most successful at school?
When kim combines with the comitative/instrumental marker -(y)la/ile, the result is kiminle ‘with whom’ However, kimle is also used in informal speech:
|En çok kim-(in)-le şakalaşmayı seviyorsun?
||Who do you most like to fool around with?
|Bu kutunun içinde ne-ler var?
||What’s in this box?
|Serap Almanya’ya ne-yle gidiyor?
||‘How (= by what means) is Serap going to Germany?’
ne is also used when the modifier in a nominal compound is the target of a question:
|O adam ne doktor-u?
||What is the specialization of that doctor?
When used as a direct object, the non-case-marked ne indicates that the speaker has no preconceptions about the answer, whereas the accusative- case-marked neyi implies that the speaker expects the answer to fall within a specified set of items, usually concrete objects:
||What do you want?
||What do you want?
The first question is a general inquiry about what the addressee wants, or expects to happen. The second question, on the other hand, would be asked in a situation where the speaker has a number of items in mind and expects the answer to refer to one of those items.
|Ne gibi :Tatil için ne gibi eşyalar alıyorsun?
||What kind of things do you take for your holidays?
|Ne biçim : İlyas ne gibi bir adam! Her zaman yalan söylüyor.
||What kind of person is Ilyas! He always tell lies
The word nere- is used in its bare form only in non-standard dialects of Turkısh. In standard Turkısh it is always inflected. Nere- occurs in the posi¬tions occupied by noun phrases, and it can combine with all the inflectional suffixes that attach to nouns.
|Elbise-ler-in-i nere-den al-di-n?
||Where did you buy your clothes from?
|En çok nere-ler-i gormek istiyorsun?
||What places do you most want to see?
|igne-yi nere-n-den yap-acak-lar?
||On what part of you? (lit. ‘Where on you) are they going to do the injection?
nerede is used when inquiring about the location of a person or object:
||Where is Patagonia?
neresi is the form used when inquiring about a place itself, as opposed to the location of a particular object or person:
||Where are we?’ (lit.’ What place is this?’)
neresi seeks as an answer a property or a characteristic that describes a loca¬tion, rather than the whereabouts of a place. For example the response to a question like would be a remark which contains a characteristic of Patagonia, such as Arjantin ‘in güneyinde yari kurak bir plato ‘[It is] a semi- arid plateau in southern Argentina’:
||What and where is Patagonia?
||Where are you from?
|Sen nerelisin? Ben İzmirliyim .
||Where are you from? I am from Smyrna.
modifies a noun phrase:
|Ahmet hangi doktora giiveniyor?
||Which doctor does Ahmet trust?
A noun phrase containing hangi is always marked with the accusative case when it is the direct object:
|Hangi kitab-i satin alacaksin?
||Which book will you buy?
Like most determiners, hangi can be pronominalized by the addition of a possessive suffix:
||Which of them (was the one who) won?
|Hangi-ler-iniz-den para istediler?
||From which (ones) of you did they ask for money?’
hangi can be used with an ablative- or genitive-marked modifier including the ablative-marked forms of iç- or ara- ‘among’:
|(Asistanlardan) hangisi bugün görevli?
||Which one (of the assistants) is on duty today?
|İçinizdenden/aranızdan hangisi bu işte gönüllü olarak çalışmak istiyor (sunuz)?
||Which one among you would like to work as a volunteer?’
kaç “how many”
kaç is used for inquiring about the number of entities denoted by a noun phrase. It occupies the position of a numeral in a noun phrase and can be used with the enumerator tane and measure terms such as avuç a “handful” , and is followed by a noun without plural marking.
|Günde kaç (tane) çay istiyorsun?
||How many [cups of] tea do you drink a day?
|Bir günde kaç saat uyuyorsun?
||How many hours do you sleep a day?
|Okula bu yil kaç kişi alacaksiniz?
||How many people will you admit to the school this year?
As a pronoun (suffixed with a possessive marker, it can occur with modifiers, which are usually ablative-marked, but can also be genitive- marked
|Ogrencilerden kaçı derse girmemiş?
||How many of the students appear to have been absent?
As in the case of hangi above, the modifier in the partitive construction can be an ablative-marked phrase based on ig- or ara- “among”:
|içinizden kaçı araba kullanmayi biliyor? ‘How many of you know how to drive?’
kaç is also used when asking about clock time:
|Saat kaç? ‘What time is it?’
In questions about a person’s age, kaç is the modifier in a -si compound:
|O çocuk kaç yaşında? How old is that child?
ne kadar “how much”
ne kadar ‘how much’ is used for asking about the following:
The quantity of a particular (usually uncountable) inanimate entity:
|Muhallebiye ne kadar şeker koyulur?
||How much sugar is used in milk pudding?
|Bundan ne kadar istiyorsun?
||How much of this do you want?
The degree to which a particular adjective or adverb is applicable:
|Yeni evi acaba ne kadar büyük?
||How big, I wonder, is his/her new home?
|Bu araba ne kadar hızlı gider?
||How fast does this car go?
The price of an item:
|Bu etek ne kadar?
||How much is this skırt?
The quantity of time or space involved in a particular action, in which case it is used adverbially:
|Bu sabah ne kadar koştun?
||How long/how much did you run this morning?
|Ameliyat ne kadar sürecek?
||How long will the operation last?
ne kadar is usually used with zaman ‘time’ as the complement of temporal postpositions
|Ne kadar (zaman) dir Londra’da oturuyorsunuz?
||How long have you been living in London?
With the addition of a 3rd person possessive suffix, the pronominalized form ne kadari can he used with a genitive-marked modifier:
|Iş-in ne kadar-in-i Zeynep’e birakacaksin?
||How much of the job will you leave to Zeynep?
ne zaman – ne vakit “when”
ne zaman/ne vakit is used for questioning the time of an event.
|Ne zaman eve gidiyorsun?
||When are you going home?
It also occurs in postpositional phrases where the complement is a time expression:
|Ne zamandan beri sigara içiyorsun?
||Since when have you been smoking?
|Ne zamana kadar bekleyeyim?
||When shall I wait till?
neden, niye, niçin ‘why’
neden, niye, and niçin (pronounced occur in questions which seek the reason or motive for an action or state of affairs:
|Kedilere niye/niçin/neden dogru dürüst yemek vermiyorsun?
||Why aren’t you feeding the cats properly?
|O kadın neden ağlıyor?
||Why ıs that woman crying?
nasıl “how” is used in questions which inquire about the manner in which an action is performed:
|Senira’nin evine nasil gidiliyor?
||How does one go to Semra’s house?
|Bunu bana nasil yapabildin?
||How could you do this to me?
It can occur as a subject complement in linking sentences:
It can also occur as a determiner, often with a following bir. In this usage, it can be replaced by ne gibi what kind of:
|Nasil/ne gibi bir eve taşınmak istiyorsunuz?
||What kind of house do you want to move to?
|Ayşe nasıl bir insan?
||What kind of person is Ayşe?
nasıl appears with ol- ‘be’ and dA in a number of phrases such as nasıl oldu da/nasıl olmuş da ‘how come’, ‘how was it that’, nasıl oluyor da ‘how is it that’:
|Nasıl oldu da bu kadar az çalışarak üniversiteyi bitirebildi?
||How come s/he worked so little and still managed to finish university?