Interrogatıve pronouns

kim who
ne what
hangi which
nere where
ne zaman when
kaç how many
ne kadar how much
nasıl how
niye why
neden why
niçin why


kim is used questions where the target of the question is a person. It can combine with all the inflectional suffixes that attach to nouns and usually occurs in the positions occupied by the corresponding noun phrases:

Resimleri kim değerlendirecek?
Who will evaluate the paintings?
Şule’nin babası kim?
Who is Şule’s father?
Nuri kim-i görmüş ?
Whom did Nurı see?

kim can have plural marking when the speaker knows or assumes that more than one person or type of person is involved:

En çok kim-Ier-in çocuk-lar-i okulda başarılı oluyormuş? Whose children (the children of what type of people) are the most successful at school?

When kim combines with the comitative/instrumental marker -(y)la/ile, the result is kiminle ‘with whom’ However, kimle is also used in informal speech:

En çok kim-(in)-le şakalaşmayı seviyorsun? Who do you most like to fool around with?

ne “what”

Bu kutunun içinde ne-ler var? What’s in this box?
Serap Almanya’ya ne-yle gidiyor? ‘How (= by what means) is Serap going to Germany?’

ne is also used when the modifier in a nominal compound is the target of a question:

O adam ne doktor-u? What is the specialization of that doctor?

When used as a direct object, the non-case-marked ne indicates that the speaker has no preconceptions about the answer, whereas the accusative- case-marked neyi implies that the speaker expects the answer to fall within a specified set of items, usually concrete objects:

Ne istiyorsun? What do you want?
Neyi istiyorsun? What do you want?

The first question is a general inquiry about what the addressee wants, or expects to happen. The second question, on the other hand, would be asked in a situation where the speaker has a number of items in mind and expects the answer to refer to one of those items.

Ne gibi :Tatil için ne gibi eşyalar alıyorsun? What kind of things do you take for your holidays?
Ne biçim : İlyas ne gibi bir adam! Her zaman yalan söylüyor. What kind of person is Ilyas! He always tell lies

nere “where”

The word nere- is used in its bare form only in non-standard dialects of Turkısh. In standard Turkısh it is always inflected. Nere- occurs in the posi¬tions occupied by noun phrases, and it can combine with all the inflectional suffixes that attach to nouns.

Elbise-ler-in-i nere-den al-di-n? Where did you buy your clothes from?
En çok nere-ler-i gormek istiyorsun? What places do you most want to see?
igne-yi nere-n-den yap-acak-lar? On what part of you? (lit. ‘Where on you) are they going to do the injection?

nerede, neresi

nerede is used when inquiring about the location of a person or object:

Patagonya nere-de? Where is Patagonia?
Arjantin’de In Argentina’

neresi is the form used when inquiring about a place itself, as opposed to the location of a particular object or person:

Bura-si nere-si? Where are we?’ (lit.’ What place is this?’)

neresi seeks as an answer a property or a characteristic that describes a loca¬tion, rather than the whereabouts of a place. For example the response to a question like would be a remark which contains a characteristic of Patagonia, such as Arjantin ‘in güneyinde yari kurak bir plato ‘[It is] a semi- arid plateau in southern Argentina’:

Patagonya nere-si? What and where is Patagonia?
Nerelisin? Where are you from?
Sen nerelisin? Ben İzmirliyim . Where are you from? I am from Smyrna.

hangi “which”

modifies a noun phrase:

Ahmet hangi doktora giiveniyor? Which doctor does Ahmet trust?

A noun phrase containing hangi is always marked with the accusative case when it is the direct object:

Hangi kitab-i satin alacaksin? Which book will you buy?

Like most determiners, hangi can be pronominalized by the addition of a possessive suffix:

Kazanan hangisiydi? Which of them (was the one who) won?
Hangi-ler-iniz-den para istediler? From which (ones) of you did they ask for money?’

hangi can be used with an ablative- or genitive-marked modifier including the ablative-marked forms of iç- or ara- ‘among’:

(Asistanlardan) hangisi bugün görevli? Which one (of the assistants) is on duty today?
İçinizdenden/aranızdan hangisi bu işte gönüllü olarak çalışmak istiyor (sunuz)? Which one among you would like to work as a volunteer?’

kaç “how many”

kaç is used for inquiring about the number of entities denoted by a noun phrase. It occupies the position of a numeral in a noun phrase and can be used with the enumerator tane and measure terms such as avuç a “handful” , and is followed by a noun without plural marking.

Günde kaç (tane) çay istiyorsun? How many [cups of] tea do you drink a day?
Bir günde kaç saat uyuyorsun? How many hours do you sleep a day?
Okula bu yil kaç kişi alacaksiniz? How many people will you admit to the school this year?

As a pronoun (suffixed with a possessive marker, it can occur with modifiers, which are usually ablative-marked, but can also be genitive- marked

Ogrencilerden kaçı derse girmemiş? How many of the students appear to have been absent?

As in the case of hangi above, the modifier in the partitive construction can be an ablative-marked phrase based on ig- or ara- “among”:

içinizden kaçı araba kullanmayi biliyor? ‘How many of you know how to drive?’

kaç is also used when asking about clock time:

Saat kaç? ‘What time is it?’

In questions about a person’s age, kaç is the modifier in a -si compound:

O çocuk kaç yaşında? How old is that child?

ne kadar “how much”

ne kadar ‘how much’ is used for asking about the following:
The quantity of a particular (usually uncountable) inanimate entity:

Muhallebiye ne kadar şeker koyulur? How much sugar is used in milk pudding?
Bundan ne kadar istiyorsun? How much of this do you want?

The degree to which a particular adjective or adverb is applicable:

Yeni evi acaba ne kadar büyük? How big, I wonder, is his/her new home?
Bu araba ne kadar hızlı gider? How fast does this car go?

The price of an item:

Bu etek ne kadar? How much is this skırt?

The quantity of time or space involved in a particular action, in which case it is used adverbially:

Bu sabah ne kadar koştun? How long/how much did you run this morning?
Ameliyat ne kadar sürecek? How long will the operation last?

ne kadar is usually used with zaman ‘time’ as the complement of temporal postpositions

Ne kadar (zaman) dir Londra’da oturuyorsunuz? How long have you been living in London?

With the addition of a 3rd person possessive suffix, the pronominalized form ne kadari can he used with a genitive-marked modifier:

Iş-in ne kadar-in-i Zeynep’e birakacaksin? How much of the job will you leave to Zeynep?

ne zaman – ne vakit “when”

ne zaman/ne vakit is used for questioning the time of an event.

Ne zaman eve gidiyorsun? When are you going home?

It also occurs in postpositional phrases where the complement is a time expression:

Ne zamandan beri sigara içiyorsun? Since when have you been smoking?
Ne zamana kadar bekleyeyim? When shall I wait till?

neden, niye, niçin ‘why’

neden, niye, and niçin (pronounced occur in questions which seek the reason or motive for an action or state of affairs:

Kedilere niye/niçin/neden dogru dürüst yemek vermiyorsun? Why aren’t you feeding the cats properly?
O kadın neden ağlıyor? Why ıs that woman crying?

nasıl “how”

nasıl “how” is used in questions which inquire about the manner in which an action is performed:

Senira’nin evine nasil gidiliyor? How does one go to Semra’s house?
Bunu bana nasil yapabildin? How could you do this to me?

It can occur as a subject complement in linking sentences:

Nasılsın? How are you?

It can also occur as a determiner, often with a following bir. In this usage, it can be replaced by ne gibi what kind of:

Nasil/ne gibi bir eve taşınmak istiyorsunuz? What kind of house do you want to move to?
Ayşe nasıl bir insan? What kind of person is Ayşe?

nasıl appears with ol- ‘be’ and dA in a number of phrases such as nasıl oldu da/nasıl olmuş da ‘how come’, ‘how was it that’, nasıl oluyor da ‘how is it that’:

Nasıl oldu da bu kadar az çalışarak üniversiteyi bitirebildi? How come s/he worked so little and still managed to finish university?

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